Off-Season Advisory

Welcome to April and the very last training period of the year.

No specific workouts will be posted here or to your TrainingPeaks Calendar this month, as we’ve hit the “Restoration” phase of the training year.

If you have access to snow, continue to do some ski workouts focusing on enjoying springtime sun and crust cruising while still thinking about your technique. However, do not get into a rut from being over-structured, or you may miss out on needed regeneration.

This is a great time of the year to focus on recovering the body and the mind. So, while adjusting to being off of snow, look at the activities you enjoy and get out there and do those. Start to blend in multiple activities, whether it be casual paddling (canoe or kayak), easy mountain biking, easy road biking, disc golf, regular golf while walking the course, hiking, rock climbing, backcountry or alpine skiing, backpacking, salsa dancing, swimming, snorkeling, surfing, ice skating, fly fishing, etc.

Do not worry about any specific Speed, Level 4 VO2 Max pace, or Level 3 threshold work; let any speed and intensity happen naturally while you are having fun enjoying different activities while regenerating from the past year’s training.


 Transition Period Between Training Seasons
(with Andrew Musgrave)

In the gym, we are taking away the weight and doing many different activities. Staying strong while regenerating is a great thing. If we get too specific in our training, we start building asymmetry. We need to reset our clocks and bodies to prepare for the following year.

We will be starting over with a new training year on April 24.

I LOVE being a cross-country skier

After a recent gravel ride with buddies, I came to the conclusion that I LOVE being a cross-country skier. The variety in training and overall general fitness allows you to do so many activities and reasonably do them quite well. I don’t believe any athletes are tied down to their sport as the only training mode but swimmers get better at swimming through swim training, and the same is mostly true for many sports. In cross-country skiing, the whole body muscle activation and fitness required leaves room for many different training modes. The body awareness learned in mountain biking, the general aerobic efficiency gained from running, the breathing techniques learned from swimming, the mitochondrial gains from long gravel rides, they all factor into a well-balanced cross-country skier ready to attack any course from 1.5 up to 50 kilometers.

As I have happily been realizing this season, I would encourage you all to mix it up this time of the training year and learn a new sport or a new skill. There is plenty of time for L4 rollerski intervals in the fall to tune the body into the specific skiing shape but build your base now and enjoy it while you do!

Ian Torchia / CXC Academy Guest Coach

Why You Should Measure HRV Through the Off-Season

by SIMON WEGERIFTrainingPeaks

Simon Wegerif is a serial entrepreneur, inventor, and biomedical engineer. He was previously an executive with Philips Electronics in the UK and Silicon Valley. Simon is a competitive cyclist and has also completed a number of triathlons including Ironman distance. He created ithlete, the leading, scientifically founded HRV app in 2009 after identifying an opportunity for using HRV in his own training. He is considered an expert on the topic, having read over 1000 papers and frequently consults with industry experts.

You might consider HRV to be a tool solely for measuring overtraining, but you can learn valuable lessons for the season to come during the off-season.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a relatively new method for assessing the effects of stress on your body. It involves measuring the time between heartbeats, which varies as you breathe in and out. Research increasingly links a high HRV (as in, more variation in the intervals between heartbeats) to good health and a high level of fitness, while decreased HRV (more regular, mechanical intervals) is linked to stress, fatigue, and even burnout.

Many athletes think of HRV a tool to avoid overtraining during the build-up to key events. However, HRV is equally capable of detecting other forms of stress on the body. This can be very useful in the off-season, allowing you to fine-tune your lifestyle so that you can recover more quickly when your training ramps up in the spring.

You can reset your baseline ready for the new season

A period of light training will reset your HRV baseline to a known starting point for next season. As the example below shows that, after three weeks, this recreational athlete’s HRV Average has settled at 77.3 and their resting heart rate at 72.6 bpm. These measures were taken in the standing position, hence the relatively high resting HR (it would be 10-15 beats lower lying down, however, HRV is best measured in an upright position). It’s recommended that endurance athletes take their HRV readings in an upright position, either sitting or standing comfortably, just after waking.

Test the impact of lifestyle changes independent of training

As all good scientists will tell you – change just one thing at a time and note the effect! The lack of large training loads allows you to try changing some of the key factors influencing recovery, and find out which have the largest effect:


So much has been written about the importance of sleep for recovery, but having a metric like HRV lets you see the effect graphically, and this will reinforce your motivation & commitment to pay attention to sleep hygiene.


The benefit of a diet with more fresh vegetables, fish or reduced refined carbohydrates will make itself visible on your HRV, and help to reinforce good habits going forward.

Stress management

For most recreational athletes (and quite a few elites), mental, emotional and general lifestyle place a bigger stress on the body than training does. So being able to manage stress is very important, not only to give yourself the biggest tolerance for training, but for overall quality of life and happiness in general. Mental stress is caused by the difference between the load placed upon us, and our perceived ability to cope, so there are two ends to work on! Techniques such as mindfulness (i.e. focussing on the present moment), deep breathing, yoga, Pilates and even open water swimming are all powerful tools that improve our perception. You may be surprised at how large an effect one of these has on your HRV.

You can watch your baseline rise with purely aerobic training

Watching your HRV rise (and subsequently your resting HR fall) can act as a powerful motivator to keep the hours of long slow distance coming, when the thought of either going outside in bad weather or facing the monotony of indoor trainers seems an unappealing prospect.

Good HRV software (like the ithlete app) can also help you identify when your training volume is increasing too rapidly, by associating HRV changes with increases in your Acute:Chronic training load ratio (TSB) as shown in the chart below taken from the ithlete Pro™ app. You should also find that as your HRV baseline rises during recovery (The 8-15 of March in this example), so does your resilience to all forms of stress.

You can detect early signs of illness & take action

Training in adverse conditions (especially cold and wet) makes you more susceptible to colds and upper respiratory tract infections. HRV is a great barometer of when your immune system is becoming mobilized and can often give you a day’s heads up that allows you to wrap up warm, take some favored supplements (zinc, vitamin C, honey & lemon, Echinacea, etc.) and get an early night to give yourself the best chance of fighting it off.

The chart below shows an example of sudden sickness following an early-season training camp when the athlete’s immune system was in a weakened state. But it also shows how quickly recovery took place when the training was removed:

Although illness is usually accompanied by a drop in HRV (followed by a spike in resting HR), a well-conducted research study in swimmers showed a rise in HRV a few days before the cold symptoms started. This possibly represents an anti-inflammatory reaction by the body and is something that has been reported to us at ithlete by a few users, so worth looking out for.


If you’re not already a regular HRV user, the off-season is the perfect time to start. In the absence of intensive training, you can experiment with lifestyle changes and build a baseline that will stand you in good stead as a reference for when training intensifies during spring.